CANCER TYPES

Prostate Cancer

About Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers amongst men. Fortunately, it is also one of the most successfully treated. This type of cancer develops in the walnut-shaped gland that is responsible for producing semen and transporting sperm.

Typically, prostate cancer is slow-growing (but not always). It’s common for the cancerous cells to linger awhile in the prostate gland without spreading or causing serious damage. However, if left untreated, the prostate cancer cells will eventually destroy the prostate and metastasize in local and distant organs.

Types of Prostate Cancer

There are several different types of prostate cancer. The most common types found in prostate cancer patients include:

  • Acinar adenocarcinoma – Cancerous cells or tumors that originate in the gland cells lining the prostate gland. This accounts for the vast majority of cases of prostate cancer.
  • Ductal adenocarcinoma – Begins in the cells that line the prostate gland’s ducts. This is a more aggressive and more invasive form of adenocarcinoma.
  • Transitional cell cancer – Also known as urothelial cancer, this starts in the cells that line the urethra. While it can begin in the prostate, it most commonly starts in the bladder and then spreads to the prostate.
  • Squamous cell cancer – Occurs when quickly developing and spreading cancer cells grow on the flat cells covering the prostate.
  • Small cell prostate cancer – A form of neuroendocrine cancer that is composed of small round cells.

Causes and Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer

According to the American Cancer Society, there will be:

  • About 174,650 new cases of prostate cancer annually.
  • About 31,620 deaths from prostate cancer annually.

The average prostate cancer patient is a man over the age of 65 years old.

To this day, doctors remain unsure as to why the cells in the prostate begin to mutate and then accumulate. However, we do know some risk factors that can increase the chances of developing prostate cancer. These prostate cancer risk factors include:

  • Age – Risk of prostate cancer increases with age. The average prostate cancer patient is a man over the age of 65 years old.
  • Race – As is the case in several forms of cancer, Black men face greater risk of prostate cancer. Compared to other prostate cancer patients, Black men are also more likely to have an aggressive form of cancer.
  • Genetic History – If men in your family had prostate cancer, or if women in your family have had breast cancer, your likelihood of developing it are significantly increased.
  • Obesity – Most every form of cancer has a link between unhealthy weight and cancer. In addition to an increased prostate cancer risk, obese patients diagnosed with prostate cancer typically will have a more aggressive version of the disease as well.

With these risk factors in mind, there is no easy or definite way to prevent prostate cancer. However, ensuring a healthy diet, maintaining an active lifestyle, and participating in early screening can help contribute to prostate cancer prevention.

Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging

Prostate cancer rarely exhibits perceptible symptoms in its early stages of development. In later stages, signs can include:

  • Blood in semen
  • Blood in urine
  • Bone pain
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort
  • Weak urine stream

Prostate cancer screening is generally done in one of two ways:

  • Digital rectal exam – A doctor digitally examines the prostate, searching via feeling for abnormalities in the gland.
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test – During a PSA test, a blood sample is taken and then analyzed for the patient’s PSA level. If high percentages are found, it can be an indication of prostate cancer or another condition, such as enlarged prostate.

Stages of Prostate Cancer

When it comes to staging, scores are assigned based on the three TNM factors:

  • – Tumor size and location
  • N – The number of nearby lymph nodes involved
  • – Metastasis, how far it has spread

According to the TNM classification, staging has nuance or secondary stages depending on the specific case; however, certain generalities do apply.

  • Stage I – The cancerous cells are growing in the prostate but haven’t yet spread beyond it and the tumor is in half or less than half of the prostate. This stage is typically referred to as “localized prostate cancer” because the cancer cells haven’t spread outside of the prostate gland.
  • Stage II – The cancer has stayed within the prostate, but the tumor is able to touch more than half of a lobe of the prostate.
  • Stage III – During this stage, the cancer has spread outside the prostate. However, the prostate cancer cells have not made it to the lymph nodes.
  • Stage IV – At this late stage, the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, but may or may not have spread to distant organs, depending on whether it is stage IVA or IVB. This stage is often referred to as “advanced prostate cancer” or “metastatic prostate cancer,” indicating that the cancer cells ave spread to other parts of the body.

With an early state of prostate cancer, the patients doctor will typically recommend observation or active surveillance, which includes closely monitoring the localized prostate cancer for any changes. If the cancer spreads outside of the prostate gland, doctors will recommend a more aggressive prostate cancer treatment plan to help control the tumor growth.

Next Steps:

Immunity Therapy Center utilizes a variety of alternative Cancer treatments to strengthen your immune system while directly targeting your Cancer Cells. These alternative cancer treatment programs help your body fight cancer naturally, without the harmful effects of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other harsh conventional treatments.

At ITC, we use a customized prostate cancer treatment plan to ensure the best results. The type and combination of alternative treatment therapies vary depending on the type and location of Cancer, stage of Cancer, and the overall health of the individual. Reach out today to set up a consultation for prostate cancer treatment and learn more about ITC’s alternative treatment plans.

Sources

American Cancer Society. Key Statistics for Prostate Cancer. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/about/key-statistics.html

Chornokur, G. NCBI. Racial Differences in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Prostate Cancer. (2016). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5169094/

WebMD. Stages and Grades of Prostate Cancer. https://www.webmd.com/prostate-cancer/prostate-cancer-stages#3

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